File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a network protocol used to exchange and manipulate files over a TCP/IP-based network. FTP is built on a client-server architecture and utilizes separate control and data connections between the client and server applications.
ProFTPD is a high-performance and scalable FTP server written from scratch, with a focus toward simplicity, security, and ease of configuration.
- Single main configuration file, with directives and directive groups
- Per directory “.ftpaccess” configuration similar to Apache's ".htaccess".
- Easy to configure multiple virtual FTP servers and anonymous FTP services.
- Anonymous FTP root directories do not require any specific directory structure, system binaries or other system files.
- Designed to run either as a stand-alone server or from inetd/xinetd, depending on system load.
- No SITE EXEC command. In modern Internet environments, such commands are a security nightmare. ProFTPD does not execute any external programs at any time. The source is available (and must always be available) for administrators to audit.
- Hidden directories and files, based on Unix-style permissions or user/group ownership.
- Runs as a configurable non-privileged user in stand-alone mode in order to decrease chances of attacks which might exploit its "root" abilities
- Logging and utmp/wtmp support with extended logging available.
- Shadow password suite support, including support for expired accounts.
- Modular design, allowing server to be extended easily with modules. Modules have been written for SQL databases, SSL/TLS encryption, LDAP servers, RADIUS support, etc.
- IPv6 support.
This article is a guide to install FreeBSD 8 using an installation CD/DVD, please make sure you've got a FreeBSD 8 installation CD/DVD.
1.Starting the FreeBSD installation
Start the installation by booting up using the installation disc.
Press ENTER, the system will start hardware probe process and you will see lots of text messages flying by your screen.
Once the installer has booted up it'll ask you to select the country, system console keymap and the type of installation you want to run. You can use the UP/DOWN arrow key to select and ENTER to continue.
The Network Time Protocol (NTP) is a protocol for synchronizing the clocks of computer systems over packet-switched, variable-latency data networks.
If you only wish to synchronize your clock when the machine boots up, you can use ntpdate. This may be appropriate for some desktop machines which are frequently rebooted, but for servers you should run ntpd.
1. Clock Synchronization using ntpdate
Using ntpdate at boot time is also a good idea for machines that run ntpd. The ntpd program changes the clock gradually, whereas ntpdate sets the clock, no matter how great the difference between a machine's current clock setting and the correct time.Print This Post
This guide describes how to install MySQL, a very popular relational database, in FreeBSD.
Please make sure the ports collection is up to date. If not, run the following command:
# portsnap fetch update
Then navigate to the ports folder for MySQL:
# cd /usr/ports/databases/mysql51-server
# make install clean
This command will download required files from the internet and will install MySQL server.
Once the install is finished, we install the database
# mysql_install_db --user=mysql
and we set up the directory permissions
# chown -R mysql /var/db/mysql/
# chgrp -R mysql /var/db/mysql/
Make sure MySQL server start automatically whenever FreeBSD comes up after reboot.
FreeBSD provide this facility via system configuration information. This file lists which services should be started up at system initial boot time.
The file contains the global system configuration information referenced by the start up scripts and is stored in /etc/rc.conf.
Configure FreeBSD to start MySQL at start up
Open /etc/rc.conf file using a text editor ( I use vi but you can use your preferred editor )
# vi /etc/rc.conf
and append following line which will enable MySQL server automatically after each reboot:
Save file and exit to shell prompt.
Starting MySQL server
To Start MySQL server under FreeBSD type following command (use script):
# /usr/local/etc/rc.d/mysql-server.sh start
Note: This will work only if you have mysql_enable="YES" in rc.conf. If you don't, use the following command:
# /usr/local/etc/rc.d/mysql-server.sh forcestart
By default, MySQL super user account has no password. So it’s important to assign the administrator account password. To change the root password, enter the following command:
mysqladmin -u root password newpass
Replace newpass with your own desired password.
Optionally, copy either my-huge.cnf, my-large.cnf, my-medim.cnf or my-small.cnf (depending on the usage and utilization of your MySQL server) as my.cnf to /etc/ or /var/db/mysql which will enable you to tweak and change the configuration of server-specific MySQL server options by editing the file.Print This Post
FreeBSD 7.x allows upgrade of existing installation to FreeBSD 8.0-STABLE. Since this is a major version upgrade, it is recommended that you backup your data, database and configuration files.
This guide will walk a user through updating his source to follow FreeBSD's stable branch. Please make a full backup of the current system before following this guide.
STEP 1: Syncing the source tree
- cvsup installation and configuration
# cd /usr/ports/net/cvsup-without-gui
# make install clean
# pkg_add -r cvsup-without-gui
Copy the sample supfile for Stable to /usr/local/etc/stable-supfile:
# cp /usr/share/examples/cvsup/stable-supfile /usr/local/etc/
Edit file and set host name which specifies the server host which will supply the file updates to your system.
Set release tag to stable 8:
*default release=cvs tag=RELENG_8
Run cvsup to download the latest stable source:
# cvsup -L 2 /usr/local/etc/stable-supfile
When the cvsup has completed, change to the /usr/src directoryPrint This Post
If you want to boot with an old kernel, because the current one is not working properly, this is what you have to do:
During boot you get a message like:
"Booting kernel in 10 seconds or press enter..."
Just hit any key except the ENTER key and you'll get a prompt.
Type 'unload all' and then 'boot [kernel file]' where [kernel file] is the kernel you want
to boot e.g. 'kernel.old' .
Your FreeBSD machine will boot with the kernel you specified.Print This Post